The Fish Explosion

first_imgFish are exploding in the kitchen of evolutionary phylogenomics.“The Age of Fishes” – the phrase immediately brings to mind your biology textbook or natural history museum.  What is it, class?  “The Devonian Period.”  Wrong.  Fish exploded onto the scene in the Devonian (300 million years ago on the evolutionary timeline), but diversified rapidly again in the Mesozoic to Cenozoic, 120 to 60 million years ago on the timeline – a virtual “Second Age of Fishes,” according to the authors of a new paper in PNAS that tried to paper over a “lack of a single comprehensive phylogeny” that “has limited our understanding of the evolution and diversification of this radiation” of our finny friends (Near et al., “Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification,” PNAS August 6, 2012, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1206625109).Is it inaccurate to call these explosions?  After all, the paper discussed the “radiation” or “diversification” of fish.  Perhaps.  But the abstract and the summary on PhysOrg used evasive words that amount to “abracadabra” incidents: we are told that the fish “appeared” and “arose.”   The scientists used the more clever word “occurred” (without explaining what mutations were preserved by natural selection), while unveiling some dirty laundry in the evolutionary fish camp:This phylogeny informs three long-standing problems: specifically identifying elopomorphs (eels and tarpons) as the sister lineage of all other teleosts, providing a unique hypothesis on the radiation of early euteleosts, and offering a promising strategy for resolution of the “bush at the top of the tree” that includes percomorphs and other spiny-finned teleosts. Contrasting our divergence time estimates with studies using a single nuclear gene or whole mitochondrial genomes, we find that the former underestimates ages of the oldest ray-finned fish divergences, but the latter dramatically overestimates ages for derived teleost lineages. Our time-calibrated phylogeny reveals that much of the diversification leading to extant groups of teleosts occurred between the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic, identifying this period as the “Second Age of Fishes.”If they were to use the word radiation the way physicists do, it travels at the speed of light – a pretty explosive speed.  Naturally, they define it differently; nevertheless, their imprecise words continue to invoke visions of instantaneous change.  As with the Cambrian explosion, no transitional forms were mentioned.  While lead author Dr. Thomas Near boasted, “The new family tree of ray-finned fish comes close to completing the book on the evolutionary relationships of vertebrates,” it is doubtful he rebuked the press release writers for saying that the fish “appeared” in the Devonian then “appeared” again later – doubtful, indeed, because he said so himself:“Half of all animals that have backbones are ray-finned fish, but we know little about their evolutionary history in contrast to other vertebrate lineages like frogs, lizards, birds, and mammals,” said Thomas Near of the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale and lead author of the paper. “Fish are usually viewed as primitive in origin, but we are learning that most of the familiar living lineages of fish arose more recently — during what we might call the Second Age of Fishes.”Speaking of fish, there’s news about the alleged fish-to-limb transition, and it’s not good (for evolutionists).  “Paddlefish’s doubled genome may question theories on limb evolution,” PhysOrg announced.  The first paragraph summarizes the furrow-browing concern in the evolution camp:The American paddlefish — known for its bizarre, protruding snout and eggs harvested for caviar — duplicated its entire genome about 42 million years ago, according to a new study published in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution. This finding may add a new twist to the way scientists study how fins evolved into limbs since the paddlefish is often used as a proxy for a more representative ancestor shared by humans and fishes.These means trouble for the fish line and the human line holding the pole.  “This creates extra genetic material that adds complexity to comparative studies,” explained Karen Crow (San Francisco State).  “It may change the way we interpret studies on limb development.” How so?In the last decade, paddlefish have become a useful benchmark in evolutionary studies because their position on the evolutionary tree makes them a reasonably good proxy for the ancestor of the bony fishes that evolved into tetrapods such as humans. However, the fact that paddlefish underwent a genome duplication could complicate what its genes tell us about the fin-to-limb transition, says Crow.“Our findings suggest that the results of previous studies using paddlefish as a comparative species may need to be re-interpreted,” Crow said.You may have thought that humans were bipeds, not tetrapods (“four-foot”), even admitting that babies walk on all fours in their transitional form to adults.  The study basically tosses the paddlefish back into the river as the transitional form that got away.  But casting a good spin with this tangle of phylogeny filament, Crow found new possibilities to bring home a good fish story:Whole genome duplications are game-changing events in evolutionary history that give rise to new species or novel features within a species. They occur when a series of unlikely circumstances coincide, resulting in twin copies of every gene. When this happens, one scenario that could take place is that one gene in the pair keeps its designated function while the other is either lost or takes on a new purpose.“This extra genetic material provides the canvas for evolution to paint with,” said Crow, who studies the evolution of novelty and diversity.In short, she gave up fishing for art.It’s hard not to laugh at these people.  Their concoctions explode in the kitchen, they can’t find the ingredients, and they can’t paint, either.  Like some other famous magicians, they are always learning and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.  There’s always truck driving for the desperate.  Use laughter charitably; it may be the quickest and softest way for them to get the hint that they are clueless.  Let them know that the ID community will welcome them into a better fellowship once they quit the Darwin cult and kick the naturalistic magic habit that is its central ritual.Where have all the fishies gone? Long time passing; Where have all transitions gone? Long time ago. Where have all our stories gone? Facts have kicked them, everyone. When will they ever learn? When will they ever learn?(Visited 15 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

KPMG’s South African Wave

first_img KPMG’s Johannesburg staff fly the South African flag high. (Photo: KPMG) Flags big and small lined the bridge outside the auditing and consulting firm as the company’s staff waved to lunchtime traffic in central Johannesburg. Workers at KPMG fly their flags from a bridge in Johannesburg. (Photo: KPMG) 8 March 2010 The staff at KPMG’s Parktown, Johannesburg office came out in their numbers on Tuesday, 2 March to celebrate 100 days to the kick-off of the 2010 Fifa World Cup™. A number of companies have come forward to show their support of the upcoming Fifa World Cup, and KPMG is clearly up there with the most enthusiastic! Football Fridays News Desklast_img read more

Marvin Williams’ 7 3-pointers lift Hornets past Pistons

first_imgIs Luis Manzano planning to propose to Jessy Mendiola? PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss “He’s a pick-and-popper,” Bullock said. “We’ve just got to be able to rotate to him quicker or whatever we want to do to be able to get to him a lot quicker. He had a lot of open looks and he was shooting pretty quick, so we just have to do better with our switches or peel-backs or whatever we call it to be able to get back to shooters.”When Hornets coach James Borrego speaks of Williams, he normally uses one word: pro.“He’s at the core of who we are,” Borrego said. “I’m really proud of him, he shot the ball well and his teammates were looking for him. He was locked and loaded tonight.”Kemba Walker finished with 22 points on 9-of-17 shooting and hit two 3-pointers down the stretch to seal Charlotte’s second straight win at home. The Hornets moved back ahead of the Pistons for sixth place in the Eastern Conference.Blake Griffin had 23 points, and Andre Drummond had 17 points and 16 rebounds for the Pistons, who shot 39 percent from the floor and scored their fewest points of the season.ADVERTISEMENT The Hornets opened a 15-point lead in the third quarter behind 13 points by Williams.But Pistons would cut the lead to three with five minutes left in the game after the Hornets missed their first eight shots of the fourth quarter.Enter Lamb.Lamb, who beat the Pistons on a last-second jumper 10 days ago, shook off a cold shooting night and scored on a driving left-handed layup and then buried a deep 3-pointer.Walker then connected on back-to-back 3s, the first coming after shaking off a defender. Walker even seemed to impress himself, smiling wide and holding his hands over his head mouthing the words “Oh my!” After his second, he ran back down the court lifting his legs high in the air while pumping his arms, knowing he had all but sealed the game.TIP-INSPistons: Bench was outscored 36-23. … Shot 23.5 percent from 3-point range. .. Only made 14 of 22 free throws.Hornets: Cody Zeller fouled out with 4:17 left and the Hornets leading 83-78. … Michael Kidd-Gilchrist had 12 points and Willy Hernangomez had 11 off the bench.NOT UP TO SATISFACTIONPistons coach Dwane Casey wasn’t pleased with his team’s effort. TS Kammuri to enter PAR possibly a day after SEA Games opening Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting MOST READ “Our give-a-crap level was very low,” Casey said. “For a very important game like tonight, when you are a winner you come out and take this game and come ready to fight. I’ll take the blame for it. I didn’t get our team ready enough to come out and compete and fight.”DEFENSE STEPS UPBorrego said it was his team’s best defensive effort of the season.“We found a group of men that’s committed to the defensive end these last two games,” Borrego said. “Four fast-break points for them, 46 points in the paint, I think that was our low for the season for opponent points at 86. … I think we made a lot strides defensively these last few days and that’s what’s got to sustain us, competing on both ends of the floor.”UP NEXTPistons: Host the Atlanta Hawks on Sunday.Hornets: Visit the Boston Celtics on Sunday night.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next BREAKING: Corrections officer shot dead in front of Bilibid LATEST STORIES SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion Kawhi Leonard scores 37 as Raptors beat Cavs Charlotte Hornets’ Kemba Walker (15) reacts after making a 3-point basket against the Detroit Pistons during the second half of an NBA basketball game in Charlotte, N.C., Friday, Dec. 21, 2018. (AP Photo/Chuck Burton)CHARLOTTE, N.C. — When asked about the last time he made seven 3-pointers in a game, Marvin Williams paused for several seconds and then finally responded, “High school?”That was a long time ago for the 32-year-old Williams.ADVERTISEMENT View comments Hotel management clarifies SEAG footballers’ kikiam breakfast issue SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion The 13-year veteran found his shooting stroke on Friday night, making a career-high 7 of 11 shots from beyond the arc on the way to a season-high 24 points as the Charlotte Hornets beat the Detroit Pistons for the third time this season, 98-86.“He was sniping tonight,” teammate Jeremy Lamb said.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine ‍football chiefThe Hornets skipped their morning shootaround, and Williams said he reported to the game feeling fresh.Detroit’s Reggie Bullock said the Pistons suffered defensive breakdowns in guarding Williams. LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviñolast_img read more

Ginebra blasts Magnolia for 1-0 lead

first_imgGreg Slaughter. PBA IMAGESMANILA, Philippines—Barangay Ginebra needed extra five minutes to survive Magnolia the last time the two fierce rivals met three weeks ago.It wasn’t the case on Saturday when the Gin Kings blew out the Hotshots, 86-75, in Game 1 of their PBA Philippine Cup quarterfinals series at Mall of Asia Arena.ADVERTISEMENT Paul Lee had 15 points and three assists while Ian Sangalang collected 14 points, eight rebounds and three steals for the Hotshots, who shot just 35 percent from the field.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess Recovering Isa Molde plays sparingly in UP loss to FEU Ginebra led by as much as 21 in the third quarter and Magnolia didn’t pull within single digits until the 1:15 mark of the fourth quarter.Greg Slaughter powered the Gin Kings with 15 points and 12 rebounds while Art dela Cruz added 14 points, three rebounds and a block in close to 24 minutes off the bench.But as dominant as Ginebra was in the opener, Cone knows the Gin Kings can’t afford to let complacency creep in heading into Monday’s Game 2.“But the big thing is we didn’t really do anything. All we was I guess put ourselves in the same situation as Rain or Shine and Phoenix. Now we have a twice-to-beat and obviously, we’d rather be Phoenix and Rain or Shine than Alaska and NorthPort,” he said“This doesn’t guarantee us anything but the first game of a short series is always important cause you do get that quick advantage.”ADVERTISEMENT Ginebra turned on the jets in the second quarter where it outscored Magnolia, 27-9, to take a 44-27 advantage at the half.“That team just doesn’t go away. We played some really excellent basketball out there especially on defense. We defended very well but that team just doesn’t go away,” Ginebra head coach Tim Cone told reporters. “I was nervous all the way up to the last 40 seconds when I finally felt that we won it.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logistics“I just thought our hustle and energy was very good tonight. That’s the team usually out-hustles you, out-energizes you and we got that tonight rather than them,” he added.Cone may just be being too humble in victory as the Hotshots never really threatened. DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew View comments Philippine Arena Interchange inaugurated Duterte wants probe of SEA Games messcenter_img PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss LATEST STORIES Panelo: Duterte ‘angry’ with SEA Games hosting hassles Hontiveros presses for security audit of national power grid Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting MOST READ Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. SEA Games hosting troubles anger Dutertelast_img read more